Educational Institutions Educational Institutions

  • Issue: May 2005
  • Designer: Hayyimi Kivkovich
  • Stamp Size: 30.8 mm x 40 mm
  • Plate no.: 578 (2 phosphor bars) 579 (No phosphor bar)
  • Sheet of 10 stamps Tabs: 5
  • Printers: E. Lewin-Epstein Ltd.
  • Method of printing: offset

During the second half of the 19th century, members of the Jewish Enlightenment Movement (Maskilim) and philanthropists from the Diaspora initiated the establishment of modem schools for the Jews living in Eretz Israel. Before then, schools were run by traditional religious Haredim (strictly religious Jews). Initially there was fierce opposition to the modern schools, from the Haredim, who were the majority of the Jewish population in Eretz Israel, and this deterred the founders who suspended their plans.

In 1854 Dr. Albert Cohen, Baron de Rothschild's secretary, came to Jerusalem from Paris and founded a hospital and a school for girls. A year later, Moses Montefiore set up another girls' school. The first schools opened and closed in turn due to lack of resources and teachers and antagonistic relations with the Haredim.

The "Lemel" School for Boys was opened in 1856, followed by a number of schools established by organizations such as the Alliance Israélite Universelle, the Hilfsverein der Deutschen Juden and others. In these schools, secular studies were added to the curriculum and some of them taught Hebrew.

Towards the end of the 19th century another educational reform took place in Eretz Israel: the national Zionist revolution. In 1889 "The Hebrew School" was founded in Jaffa which became a model for Hebrew education.

In the agricultural villages ("moshavot") three different types of schools developed: the traditional religious school, modern schools, influenced by the Baron de Rothschild's administration, and national, schools initiated by the Hebrew teachers who created the national symbols and culture, thus shaping the New Hebrew generation.

The first attempt in 1892 by the Hebrew teachers to create a unified education policy failed. However, in 1903, "The Hebrew Teachers Organization" was founded in Zikhron Yaagov and a new curriculum for Hebrew education was developed by 1907. Following the "language war" that broke out in 1913, disputing the use of German in the Technion instead of Hebrew as the language of instruction, the Zionist Organization took over the Hebrew schools in Eretz Israel and a central Zionist education authority was established.

"Lemel" Elementry School, Jerusalem

In May 1856 the Jewish Maskil and poet, Dr. L. A. Frankel, came to Jerusalem, representing Mrs. Lift  Hertz from Vienna, in order to establish a modern school in the memory of her father. His innovative school curriculum included emotional and aesthetic development, sports and music education. But Frankel faced fierce obstructions and ostracism, bordering on life threatening situations by the Haredim. Whilst the Ashkenazi Jews boycotted the school the Sepharadim supported it. Though the studies under the auspices and control of the Sepharadic community did not in the least resemble Frankel's original program, the opening of the Lemel School constituted a breakthrough for modern education of boys.

Hebrew Kindergarten, Rishon Le-Zion

Kindergartens developed in Eretz Israel within the framework of modem education, although this was not Hebrew education. Under the influence of Baron de Rothschild's administration, a kindergarten was Dpened in 1892 in Zikhron Yaagov with French as the language of instruction. In 1896 the "Rothschild Girls' School" opened a kindergarten with English as the language of instruction.

The first Hebrew kindergarten was established in Rishon Le-Zion in 1898, initiated by David Yudelevich.The kindergarten teacher, Esther Shapira, was a native of Rishon Lelion colony trained at the English kindergarten in Jerusalem. Hebrew education for pre-schoolers stimulated and contributed significantly to the development of stories and songs in Hebrew.

Professor Rachel Elboim-Dror

top top

Educational Institutions in Eretz Israel